Edward IV, Restoration of

(1471)
   In the spring of 1471, only six months after being driven from the throne, EDWARD IV returned to England, overthrew the READEPTION government of HENRY VI, defeated and killed Richard NEVILLE, earl of Warwick, and destroyed the male line of the house of LANCASTER.
   Funded by his brother-in-law, Duke CHARLES of BURGUNDY, Edward IV departed the Dutch port of Flushing on 11 March 1471. Leading a fleet of 36 ships and 1,200 men, both Englishmen and Burgundians, Edward sought first to land in East Anglia, where he hoped for assistance from John MOWBRAY, duke of Norfolk, and John de la POLE, duke of Suffolk.However, when agents sent ashore learned that the dukes were in custody and John de VERE, earl of Oxford, was keeping close watch on the coast, Edward turned north to land at Ravenspur. As he marched through a hostile Yorkshire that provided few recruits, Edward was menaced by John NEVILLE, marquis of Montagu, and unsupported by Henry PERCY, the sympathetic earl of Northumberland, who could not persuade his Lancastrian followers to join the king who had slain so many of their relatives ten years earlier at the Battle of TOWTON. Still, Northumberland did good service by keeping his men from taking an active part in resisting Edward and by preventing an uncertain Montagu from attacking the Yorkist force while it was still small and vulnerable. Denied entry to several towns, Edward announced that he had come not to reclaim the throne but merely to secure his inheritance as duke of York. At York, he gained admission to the city only by agreeing to leave his army outside the walls. Nonetheless, Montagu’s failure to attack allowed Edward to survive, which increased his chances of gaining support. As Edward marched south into the Midlands, men loyal to such Yorkist lords as William HASTINGS, Lord Hastings, joined his force, which now grew to sufficient size to convince Warwick to withdraw before it into Coventry. Rejoined by his wayward brother, George PLANTAGENET, duke of Clarence, and unable to coax Warwick to give battle, Edward left Coventry and marched on LONDON, which he entered unopposed on 11 April. After taking custody of Henry VI and releasing Queen Elizabeth WOODVILLE and his newborn son (see Edward V, King of England) from SANCTUARY at Westminster, Edward led his rapidly growing army northward. On 14 April, he slew both Warwick and Montagu at the Battle of BARNET.
   On the same day as Barnet, Queen MARGARET OF ANJOU and her son Prince EDWARD OF LANCASTER landed in southern England. Greeted by Edmund BEAUFORT, duke of Somerset, and other staunch Lancastrians, the queen marched into the West Country, where she raised a large force. Edward followed quickly and on 4 May defeated the Lancastrians at the Battle of TEWKESBURY, where Prince Edward was slain and Somerset was captured and executed. With a captive Queen Margaret in tow, Edward returned to London, where Anthony WOODVILLE, Earl Rivers, and other Yorkist lords had beaten back an assault on the city by Thomas NEVILLE, the Bastard of Fauconberg.With all significant resistance crushed, Edward entered London on 21 May. That night, Henry VI was murdered in the TOWER OF LONDON, thus ending the Lancastrian cause and completing the restoration of the house of YORK.
   Further Reading: Gillingham, John, The Wars of the Roses (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981); Goodman, Anthony, The Wars of the Roses (New York: Dorset Press, 1981); Ross, Charles, Edward IV (New Haven, CT:Yale University Press, 1998); Ross, Charles, The Wars of the Roses (London: Thames and Hudson, 1987).

Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses. . 2001.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Edward IV, Overthrow of — (1470)    Outmaneuvered by his former ally Richard NEVILLE, earl of Warwick, EDWARD IV was compelled to flee the realm in October 1470. Besides allowing the restoration of HENRY VI, Edward’s overthrow and flight demonstrated the depth of support… …   Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses

  • Edward IV, King of England — (1442–1483)    Edward IV, first king of the house of YORK, was a central figure in the WARS OF THE ROSES. Only eighteen when he overthrew HENRY VI and the house of LANCASTER, Edward, despite personal flaws and political misjudgments that briefly… …   Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses

  • Edward V, King of England — (1470–c. 1483)    The eldest son of EDWARD IV and second monarch of the house of YORK, Edward V was the uncrowned king of England from April to June 1483, when he was dethroned by his uncle RICHARD III in an act of usurpation that reignited the… …   Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses

  • Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon — Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. Clarendon is dressed in the garb of the Lord Chancellor, a position he held 1658 1667. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609 – 9 December 1674) was an English historian and statesman, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Edward Bond — (born 18 July 1934) is an English playwright, theatre director, poet, theorist and screenwriter. He is the author of the play Saved (1965), the production of which was instrumental in the abolition of theatre censorship in the UK. His… …   Wikipedia

  • Edward Pococke — (1604 1691) was an English Orientalist and biblical scholar.Early lifeHe was the son of clergyman from Chieveley in Berkshire, and was educated at Lord Williams s School of Thame in Oxfordshire and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford (scholar in… …   Wikipedia

  • Edward James — Edward William Frank James (1907 ndash;1984) was a British poet known for his patronage of the surrealist art movement.Early life and marriageEdward James was born August 16, 1907, the only son of William James, an American railroad magnate who… …   Wikipedia

  • Edward Howard (playwright) — Edward Howard (1624 ndash; c. 1700) was an English dramatist and author of the Restoration era. He was the fifth son of Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire, and one of four playwriting brothers: Sir Robert Howard, Colonel Henry Howard, and James …   Wikipedia

  • Edward V of England — Edward V Edward V as Prince of Wales, stained glass, 1482, Little Malvern Priory King of England more Reign …   Wikipedia

  • Edward Balliol — Edward de Balliol (c. 1282 ndash;1364) was the short lived King of Scotland during the simultaneous reign of King David II. In the autumn of 1332, and again in 1333 6 he was able to establish a temporary hold in parts of southern Scotland with… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.